Characterization of Cassia Tora Seed (CTS) Oil-Based Biodiesel-Diesel Blends

Saferiel Onatola Morakinyo, Umar Omeiza Aroke, Jibril Mohammed, Idris Misau Muhammad, Abdulwadud Abdulkarim Yusuf


The paper reported on the characterization of CTS oil-based biodiesel-diesel blends. The study's primary objective are the physicochemical characterization of oil and biodiesel from Cassia Tora seed (CTS) oil, characterization of CTS oil-based biodiesel using FTIR and GCMS analysis. Extraction revealed the presence of 8.8% oil in Cassia Tora seed. The CTS biodiesel's viscosity was found to be 0.9092, which is well above the petroleum diesel.

The physiochemical characterization showed that 5, 12.5 and 20 % CTS oil-based biodiesel-diesel blends are within acceptable limit for combustion engine without modification having viscosities of 0.8744, 0.8764, and 0.8787 respectively while 100% CTS oil-based biodiesel would require upgrading to meet up with the recommended standard for fuel used as diesel in internal combustion engines.

FTIR and GCMS analysis showed functional groups and characteristic peaks of fatty acids and methyl ester with carbon range from C13–C17, C16 constituted the major Fatty acid group and contained 61.69 % Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA), and 38.31 % Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) giving a 94.3% biodiesel yield.


characterization; oil; blends; diesel; physiochemical; biodiesel; fatty acid; cassia tora; seed

Full Text:



Alao, F. O., Ololade, Z. S., & Nkeonye, C. V. (2018). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Potentials of Senna tora Leaf and Seed Extracts against Some Clinically Isolated Bacteria. Journal of Bacteriol Parasitol, 9(3), 14.

Bjorn, S. S., Sergio, C. C., & Jewel, A. C. (2013). Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Peanut Oil Biodiesel. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 3, 272–286.

Jain, S., & Patil, U. K. (2010). Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Cassia tora Linn. - An Overview. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1(4), 430–437.

Kumar, V., & Roy, B. K. (2018). Population authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Cassia tora L. based on ISSR markers and FTIR analysis. Scientific Reports, 8(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29114-1

Mankilik, M., & Mhya, D. H. (2014). Preliminary Study on Physiochemical and Fatty Acids Content of Cassia tora Seed Oil. International. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 6(2), 176–178.

Mosesane, J., Mbaya, K., Tshabalala, R., & Kalombo, L. (2015). Characterization of Fuel Properties for the Biodiesel-Petro-Diesel Blends Dosed with the FPC. Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: General Engineering, 15(4), 1–7.

Mostafa, N., Bishr, M., Singab, A. N., & Salama, O. (2015). Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Cassia tora, L. Seeds. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 10(1), 1–8.

O’kuru, H. R., Payne-Wahl, K. L., & M., B. (2012). Medicinal Components Recoverable from Sicklepod (Senna Obtusifolia) Seed: Analysis of Components by HPLC-MSn. Journal of Chromatography Separation Techniques, 1, 1–4.

Otadi, M., Shahraki, A., Goharrokhi, M., & Bandarchian, F. (2011). Reduction of Free Fatty Acids of Waste Oil by Acid-Catalyzed Esterification. Procedia Engineering, 18, 168-174.

Othman, M., Abdullah, A. A., Kamal, K., Asri, S., Azmi, Z., & Mamat, R. (2019). Improvement of fuel properties for palm oil methyl ester (POME) biodiesel blends using organic germanium as additives. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 469, 012121. doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/469/1/012121

Pawar, H. A., & Lalitha, K. G. (2015). Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide. International Journal of Biomaterials, 20(15).

Qasim, M., Ansari, T. M., & Hussain, M. (2017). Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils. Energies, 10(7), 1023. doi: 10.3390/en10071023

Radoslav, M., Milan, T., Ferenc, M., Ferenc, K., Mirko, S., & Aleksandra, A. (2018). Reduction of free fatty acids in waste oil for biodiesel production by glycerolysis: investigation and optimization of process parameters. Green Processing and Synthesis, 8(1), 1–21.

Ramesh, B. N., & Appa-Rao, B. V. (2013). Performance Evaluation of Caster Methyl Ester in Direct Injection Four Stroke Diesel Engine. Global Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2(6), 22–28.

Ridha, B. S., Mounir, B., & Manef, A. (2015). Waste Frying Oil with High Levels of Free Fatty Acids as one of the prominent sources of Biodiesel Production. Journal of Mater and Environmental Science, 6(4), 1178–1185.

Röttig, A., Wenning, L., Bröker, D., & Steinbüchel, A. (2009). Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 85(6), 1713–1733. doi: 10.1007/s00253-009-2383-z

Saifuddin, N., Samiuddin, A., & Kumaran, P. (2015). A Review on Processing Technology for Biodiesel Production. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, Centre for Renewable Energy: Malaysia, 10(1), 1-37.

Sharma, V. K., Yngard, R. A., & Lin, Y. (2009). Silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 145(1-2), 83–96. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2008.09.002

Shukla, S. K., Kumar, A., Terrence, M., Yusuf, J., & P., S. V. (2013). The Probable Medicinal Usage of Cassia Tora: An Overview. Journal of Biological Science, 13, 13–17.

Singh, V. K., & Khan, A. M. (2009). Medicinal Plants and Folklores - A Strategy towards Conquest of Human Ailments. N. d. : Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers.

Sivaramakrishnan, K., & Ravikumar, P. (2012). Determination of cetane number of biodiesel and it’s Influence on physical properties. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 7, 205–211.

Umar, I. A., Aroke, U. O., & Osha, O. A. (2018). Response surface methodological optimization of biodiesel production from cassia tora seed. ABUAD Journal of engineering research and development, 1(2), 49-63.

Usman, M. A., Olanipekun, O. O., & Henshaw, U. T. (2012). A Comparative Study of Soya Bean Oil and Palm Kernel Oil as Alternatives to Transformer Oil. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1), 33–37.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Saferiel Onatola Morakinyo, Umar Omeiza Aroke, Jibril Mohammed, Idris Misau Muhammad, Abdulwadud Abdulkarim Yusuf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.